Peru August 2007

Trip ReportsPeru August 2007


Our tour began in the ancient Inca capital of Cusco, one of the highest altitude cities in the world, at 3200m. We began with a trip to Huacarpay lakes, an area of marshland set among otherwise very arid grasslands. Butterfly diversity at such a high altitude was expected to be low but we saw many interesting species including the tiny Nabokov’s Lycid Nabokovia cuzquenha, Gulf Fritillary Agraulis vanillae, and several skippers including the Cusco Grizzled Skipper Pyrgus bocchoris cuzcona.

The following morning, we had a pre-dawn departure by minibus for our epic 280 km journey across the Andes. For several hours, we climbed the tortuous zigzag route up the western slopes, amidst a barren rocky landscape, with precipitous drops at the side of the fragile single track road. Eventually, we emerged onto the high altitude puna grasslands – a silent and serene area bathed in warm sunshine. Here, above the clouds at an altitude of over 4000m, it was hardly surprising that butterflies were very scarce, but in fields close to a small village, we found dozens of Puna Clouded Yellows Colias euxanthe, and several Peruvian Puna Skippers Hylephila peruana.

image 21 - Learn Butterflies
Peru August 2007 13

Hylephila peruana, puna grasslands, 3500m © Adrian Hoskins


In the early afternoon, we began our descent from the puna, and by mid-afternoon, we entered Manu Biosphere Reserve at Tres Cruces, at which point the scenery changed dramatically, with stunted cloud forest stretching across the peaks to the horizon.

Within a few minutes, we had our first really exciting find – a group of 4 Ornate Juneas Junea doraete, one of the prettiest Satyrines in the neotropics. Equally exciting was a huge skipper Metardaris cosinga, marked in black and yellow, and with a furry red abdomen.

As our descent continued, we made many roadside stops – unfortunately, these were usually of fairly short duration as we had to arrive at our accommodation before dusk. Amongst species seen along the roadside were the Andean Painted Lady Vanessa altissima, the pretty Pierines Hesperocharis nereina and H. marchallii, and numerous high altitude Satyrines including the strange metallic silver Punargentus lamna, plus Lymanopoda translucida, Druphila venerata, and the stunning tailed Striped Falcon Corades ulema.

image 22 - Learn Butterflies
Peru August 2007 14

Wayqecha – stunted high altitude cloudforest, puna grasslands on distant horizon © Adrian Hoskins

After a night at Wayqecha, a frosty morning soon gave way to warm sunshine and clear views across the stunning Andean panorama of cloud forest-covered mountains. More roadside stops produced further high altitude Satyrines including the beautiful white-banded Oressinoma typhla, and Nymphalids including Hypanartia kefersteini and Orophila diotima.

We also saw our first Heliconiines of the trip, Heliconius erato – a species which produces many different geographical color forms, the local form being chocolate brown with cream spots on the forewings and radiating red lines on the hindwings.

image 23 - Learn Butterflies
Peru August 2007 15

Looking south-west across the Andes from San Pedro, August 2007 © Adrian Hoskins

For the next 2 days, we stayed at Manu Paradise Lodge, at 1400m. From there, we visited a nearby Cock-of-the-Rock lek where we saw stunning displays by a dozen of these magnificent red birds. On the forest trails and along Manu road, many interesting butterflies were seen including several Perisama species, Adelpha alala, Rhetus dysonii, and our first Caligo Owl butterflies.

Every night, hundreds of moths gathered at the lights at the lodge – micros, hawkmoths, silkmoths, emeralds, prominents, and amazing wasp-mimicking Arctiids.

image 24 - Learn Butterflies
Peru August 2007 16

Our next destination was Pantiacolla Lodge, at 550m on the Rio Madre de Dios. En route, we stopped at a shingle bank where hundreds of the pretty brown, orange, and white Adelpha jordani were swarming, along with smaller numbers of several other species. As we journeyed along the river, an almost constant stream of Pierids and Swordtails passed us, all migrating in the opposite direction.

Cloudy and cool conditions during our 2 days at Pantiacolla limited butterfly sightings somewhat, but we saw about 60 species including Morpho helenor, the pretty Green-shouldered Skipper Gorgopas trochilus, lots of Satyrines, many Harmonia Tigers Tithorea harmonia, and a stunning blue Riodinid – not illustrated in any published work, but kindly identified as Xenandra poliotactis by neotropical Riodinid experts Curtis Callaghan and Jason Hall.

image 25 - Learn Butterflies
Peru August 2007 17

Xenandra poliotactis © Adrian Hoskins

On one of the Pantiacolla trails, I had a slightly alarming experience when a large group of White-lipped Peccaries emerged a few meters ahead of me, snorting, grunting, and clicking their teeth. I had been told, however, that the animals have poor eyesight, so I froze on the spot and remained totally silent. After a while, they wandered, still snorting loudly, back into the forest.

Other wildlife included Red Howler Monkey, Black Spider Monkey, Andean Coati, Tamarin, and Southern Amazon Red Squirrel.

image 26 - Learn Butterflies
Peru August 2007 18

Callicore cynosura, known as the “BD” butterfly, seen at Pantiacolla and Oropendola lodges.

A 3-hour boat journey took us to our final destination, Oropendola Lodge, at an altitude of 200m. Here we spent 5 days birding and butterfly-watching along the numerous trails, and photographing the myriads of butterflies which assembled to imbibe moisture from the sandbanks of the river. Here we saw dozens of the glorious Red Flasher Panacea prola.

These butterflies, marked on the upperside with a beautiful metallic blue pattern, assemble in large groups to bask on the shore. When one individual detects a threat from an approaching bird or human, it responds by fanning its wings to display the bright red underside.

This acts as a signal to warn its brethren, who also start fanning their wings, so that the whole group quickly becomes alerted to the danger and is ready to fly up into the trees to escape.

image 27 - Learn Butterflies
Peru August 2007 19

Panacea prola, the underside wings are bright red © Adrian Hoskins

On a day trip from our base, we visited an ox-bow lake. Most of the group elected to go out on a raft with the aim of birding and spotting river otters. They had a very successful and enjoyable trip, but I preferred to explore the trails in the nearby forest for butterflies.

I saw several Ithomiine Glasswings and observed one incident in which one of these butterflies settled clumsily on a nearby leaf, on which it walked about in a disoriented manner. A patch of rainwater had collected near the edge of the leaf, and the butterfly walked to its edge, bent forward, and dipped its left antenna into the water. It then used its right foreleg to “comb” the antenna, cleaning it of debris.

Afterwards, it turned to face the opposite direction, dipped its right antenna into the water, and drew the antenna through its left foreleg. The very deliberate way in which this preening took place was fascinating to watch. After cleaning its antennae, the butterfly instantly became more alert and regained control, clearly demonstrating to me the fact that the antennae are vital for maintaining balance and orientation.

image 28 - Learn Butterflies
Peru August 2007 20

Philaethria dido imbibing dissolved minerals from damp sand © Adrian Hoskins

Having feasted our eyes on the hordes of other butterfly species at Oropendola Lodge, such as the stunning purple Rhetus periander, the beautiful translucent green Philaethria dido, and having been captivated by the calls of the Screaming Piha, the gurgling songs of various Oropendola species, and the humbling feeling that comes from standing silently amidst a rainforest seething with wildlife, we sadly had to depart for our 7-hour journey by motorized longboat to Labarinta, from where we were to be transported to Puerto Maldonado.

image 29 - Learn Butterflies
Peru August 2007 21

Rhetus dysonii, male, Manu cloudforest, 1500m © Adrian Hoskins

The journey began at dawn, and about half an hour later, in misty conditions, we had a distant sighting of a Brazilian Tapir, which emerged from a patch of bamboo forest and strolled along a sandbank. We made a couple of stops at other sandbanks along the route (where butterflies were largely absent except for a sighting of the brilliant metallic green Caria mantinea) and later had an interesting incident when the boat became grounded for a while in the middle of the 400-meter wide river. A lot of organized boat rocking finally got us clear.

During the afternoon, temperatures soared and a storm brewed. In the distance, the sky became black, and as rainfall hit the distant sandbanks, a swirling cloud of dust and steam erupted and swept rapidly downstream towards us.

Our boatmen, who had until this time been excellent, unfortunately decided to try to outrun the storm rather than pull over to sit it out on the shore. Moments later, a crack of lightning was followed by an instant and violent clap of thunder, and a massive gust of wind grabbed our boat, ripping off the roof.

Torrential rain, lashing winds, and a very choppy river had most of us fearing the boat would capsize, but luckily the storm subsided after a few minutes and we were able to limp on to the port at Labarinta, from where we were transported by minibus to Puerto Maldonado.

We spent the night in a hotel at Puerto Maldonado, and in the morning awoke to find the weather overcast and very cool. We had a couple of hours to spare before our scheduled departure for Lima, and used it to explore a patch of relict forest just outside the city. We only saw one butterfly, but it was a rather special one – the tiny long-tailed Riodinid Syrmatia lamia – a fitting finale to end one of the most interesting and productive neotropical trips in which I have participated.

image 30 - Learn Butterflies
Peru August 2007 22

Oleria quintina, Madre de Dios, Peru © Adrian Hoskins

Species List

Species listed below were identified from photographs by Adrian Hoskins. Papilionoidea were identified using the various d’Abrera volumes for reference. Hesperioidea were identified using Lewis, Seitz, Garwood, and Lehman, as well as various internet resources. Nomenclature of all species follows Lamas. A total of 322 species have been positively identified as of March 14, 2008.

Species new to science:

In addition to the species listed in the table below, 2 undescribed species were photographed. Adrian Hoskins is indebted to Gerardo Lamas for his help in determining their status.

  1. Species 1 – “….might be a new species of Taygetis related to leuctra”
  2. Species 2 – “….a new species of Cepheuptychia” ref:101/1230 (Lamas)
image 31 - Learn Butterfliesimage 32 - Learn Butterflies
Cepheuptychia sp. nov 101/1230 ( Lamas )Taygetis sp. related to leuctra

Site

Family

subfamily

Genus

species

Manu cloudforest 2200m

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Abananote

erinome

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Achlyodes

busirus

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Achlyodes

mithridates

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Actinote

dicaeus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Adelotypa

borsippa

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

alala

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

cytherea

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

erotia

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

irmina

Madre de Dios, 300m

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

jordani

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

jordani

Manu cloudforest 1600m

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

justina

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

lycorias

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

malea

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

mesentina

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

mesentina

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

plesaure

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

thesprotia

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Limenitidinae

Adelpha

thessalia

Huacarpay

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Agraulis

vanillae

Manu cloudforest 2200m

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Altinote

negra

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Amarynthis

meneria

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Amphidecta

calliomma

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Amphidecta

pignerator

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Amphidecta

reynoldsi

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Anastrus

neaeris

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Anastrus

neaeris

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Ancyluris

aulestes

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Ancyluris

meliboeus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Anteos

menippe

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Anteos

menippe

Manu cloudforest 1800m

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Anthoptus

epictetus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Antigonus

decens

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Antigonus

nearchus

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Antirrhea

phasiana

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Antirrhea

taygetina

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Pieridae

Pierinae

Aphrissa

statira

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Pieridae

Pierinae

Aphrissa

statira

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Arawacus

separata

Manu cloudforest 1800m

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Arawacus

separata

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Arcas

imperialis

Manu cloudforest 2200m

Pieridae

Pierinae

Archonias

brassolis

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Asterope

markii

Huacarpay

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Atalopedes

nr campestris

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Autochton

zarex

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Baeotus

aeilus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Baeotus

deucalion

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Battus

belus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Bia

actorion

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Bia

actorion

Manu cloudforest 1800m

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Bolla

atahuallpai

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Bolla

cupreiceps

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Brevioleria

aelia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Caeruleuptychia

brixius

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Caeruleuptychia

caerulea

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Caeruleuptychia

lobelia

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Caeruleuptychia

tenera

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Caligo

eurilochus

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Caligo

idomeneus

Manu cloudforest 1800m

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Caligo

oileus

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Callicore

astarte

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Callicore

cynosura

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Callicore

cynosura

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Callicore

hystaspes

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Callithomia

lenea

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Calospila

emylius

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Calycopis

atnius

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Calycopis

centoripa

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Calycopis

malta

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Calycopis

pisis

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Camptopleura

theramenes

Madre de Dios, 200m

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Caria

mantinea

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Caria

trochilus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Carystus

nr marpesia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Carrhenes

bamba

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Castilia

angusta

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Castilia

angusta

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Castilia

ofella

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Catacore

kolyma

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Catoblepia

berecynthia

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Catoblepia

berecynthia

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Catoblepia

berecynthia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Catonephele

acontius

Manu cloudforest 1700m

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Catonephele

salambria

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Celmia

celmus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Cepheuptychia

sp. nov ( Lamas )

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Chalodetta

theodora

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Charis

anius

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Chloreuptychia

herseis

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Chloreuptychia

marica

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Cissia

myncea

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Cithaerias

phantoma

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Cithaerias

pireta

Manu cloudforest 2900m

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Colias

euxanthe

Manu puna 3500m

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Colias

euxanthe

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Colobura

dirce

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Charaxinae

Consul

fabius

Manu cloudforest 1900m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Corades

cistene

Manu cloudforest 1800m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Corades

medeba

Manu cloudforest 2800m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Corades

medeba

Manu cloudforest 2400m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Corades

ulema

Manu cloudforest 1900m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Corderopedaliodes

pandates

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Crocozona

coecias

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Pieridae

Pierinae

Cunizza

hirlanda

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Hesperiidae

Heteropterinae

Dalla

cypselus

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Hesperiidae

Heteropterinae

Dalla

frater

Manu cloudforest 1900m

Hesperiidae

Heteropterinae

Dalla

nr ibhara

Manu cloudforest 1900m

Hesperiidae

Heteropterinae

Dalla

oxaites

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Diaethria

clymena

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Diaethria

clymena

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Diaethria

clymena

Manu cloudforest 2900m

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Dione

moneta

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Pieridae

Dismorphiinae

Dismorphia

laja

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Apaturinae

Doxocopa

lavinia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Apaturinae

Doxocopa

lavinia

Manu cloudforest 2400m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Druphila

venerata

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Dryas

iulia

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Dryas

iulia

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Dryas

iulia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Dynamine

gisella

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Ebrietas

anacreon

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Echydna

punctata

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Echydna

punctata

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Ectima

iona

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Emesis

lucinda

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Pieridae

Dismorphiinae

Enantia

lina

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Pieridae

Dismorphiinae

Enantia

melete

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Enos

falerina

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Epiphile

lampethusa

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Eresia

eunice

Manu cloudforest 2800m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Eretris

calisto

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Eueides

aliphera

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Eueides

heliconioides

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Eueides

heliconioides

Manu cloudforest 2000m

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Eueides

heliconioides

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Eunica

alpais

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Eunica

clytia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Eunica

marsolia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Eunica

sophonisba

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Eunica

tatila

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Euptychia

ocirrhoe

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Euptychia

ocirrhoe

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Euptychia

westwoodi

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Eurema

albula

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Eurema

albula

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Eurema

paulina

Manu cloudforest 1600m

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Eurema

salome

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Eurema

xantochlora

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Eurybia

albiseriata

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Eurybia

molochina

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Eurytides

dolicaon

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

clithra

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

euriteus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

gelanor

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

hygenius

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

melaphaea

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

orfita

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

teleclus

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

toppini

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Euselasia

zena

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Charaxinae

Fountainea

ryphea

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Pieridae

Pierinae

Ganyra

phaloe

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Pieridae

Pierinae

Glutophrissa

drusilla

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Godyris

zavaleta

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Gorgopas

trochilus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Haetera

piera

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Heliconius

melpomene

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Heliconius

numata

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Heliconius

sara

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Heliconius

sara

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Heliconius

wallacei

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Heraclides

anchisiades

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Heraclides

thoas

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Heraclides

torquatus

Manu cloudforest 1700m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Hermeuptychia

cucullina

Manu cloudforest 2000m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Hermeuptychia

cucullina

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Pieridae

Pierinae

Hesperocharis

marchalii

Manu cloudforest 2000m

Pieridae

Pierinae

Hesperocharis

nereina

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Historis

odius

Huacarpay

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Hylephila

fasciolata

Manu cloudforest 2900m

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Hylephila

peruana

Manu puna 3500m

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Hylephila

peruana

Huacarpay

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Hylephila

phyleus

Manu cloudforest 1800m

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Hypanartia

dione

Manu cloudforest 2800m

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Hypanartia

kefersteini

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Hypanartia

lethe

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Hypanartia

lethe

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Hypoleria

lavinia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Hypothyris

cantobrica

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Pieridae

Pierinae

Itaballia

demophile

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Pieridae

Pierinae

Itaballia

pandosia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Ithomia

agnosia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Ithomia

salapia

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Ithomiola

floralis

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Janthecla

cydonia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Janthecla

sista

Manu cloudforest 3370m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Junea

doraete

Manu cloudforest 2900m

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Junonia

vestina

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Laothus

gibberosa

Manu cloudforest 1800m

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Laothus

gibberosa

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Laparus

doris

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Lasaia

agesilas

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Lasaia

arsis

Manu cloudforest 2400m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Lasiophila

orbifera

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Pieridae

Dismorphiinae

Lieinix

nemesis

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Danainae

Lycorea

halia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Danainae

Lycorea

pasinuntia

Manu cloudforest 1800m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Lymanopoda

albomaculata

Manu cloudforest 1800m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Lymanopoda

apulia

Manu cloudforest 2800m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Lymanopoda

eubagioides

Manu cloudforest 2800m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Lymanopoda

obsoleta

Manu cloudforest 1800m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Lymanopoda

panacea

Manu cloudforest 2800m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Lymanopoda

translucida

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Lyropteryx

apollonia

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Magneuptychia

pallema

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Magneuptychia

analis

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Magneuptychia

analis

Manu cloudforest 1900m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Magneuptychia

ocnus

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Manerebia

rubescens

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Manerebia

satura

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Marela

tamyris

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Marpesia

berania

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Marpesia

chiron

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Marpesia

chiron

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Marpesia

crethon

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Marpesia

crethon

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Marpesia

furcula

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Marpesia

petreus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Marpesia

themistocles

Manu cloudforest 1800m

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Melanis

cinaron

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Melinaea

menophilus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Pieridae

Pierinae

Melete

lycimnia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Charaxinae

Memphis

praxias

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Mesene

sp unknown

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Mesosemia

judicialis

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Mesosemia

loruhama

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Mesosemia

sirenia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Mesosemia

steli

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Metamorpha

elissa

Manu cloudforest 3200m

Hesperiidae

Metardaris

cosinga

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Methona

confusa

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Methona

confusa

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Euselasiinae

Methone

cecilia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Mimoides

pausanias

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Mimoides

xeniades

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Morpho

achilles

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Morpho

helenor

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Mylon

maimon

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Mylon

maimon

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Myrinia

myris

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Myscelia

capenas

Huacarpay

Lycaenidae

Lycaeninae

Nabokovia

cuzquenha

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Napeocles

jucunda

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Napeogenes

harbona

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Napeogenes

pharo

Manu cloudforest 1800m

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Neruda

aoede

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Nessaea

batesii

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Nessaea

obrinus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Nisoniades

castilus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Notheme

erota

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Nymphidium

caricae

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Nymphidium

leucosia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Nymphidium

olinda

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Oleria

assimilis

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Oleria

onega

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Oleria

quintina

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Opoptera

aorsa

Manu cloudforest 1900m

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Opoptera

aorsa

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Morphinae

Opsiphanes

quiteria

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Oressinoma

typhla

Manu cloudforest 2000m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Oressinoma

typhla

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Orophila

diotima

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Ortilia

gentina

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Panacea

prola

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Panacea

prola

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Parcella

amarynthina

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Parides

sesostris

Manu cloudforest 1900m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pedaliodes

pausia

Manu cloudforest 1900m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pedaliodes

perisades

Manu cloudforest 2200m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pedaliodes

phrasicla

Manu cloudforest 1900m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pedaliodes

phthiotis

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Perisama

cabirnia

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Perisama

calamis

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Perisama

comnena

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Perisama

humboldtii

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Perisama

philinus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Pieridae

Pierinae

Perrhybris

pamela

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Phareas

coeleste

Manu cloudforest 1900m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pherepedaliodes

pheretiades

Madre de Dios, Boca Manu

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Philaethria

dido

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Heliconiinae

Philaethria

dido

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Phocides

thermus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Phoebis

agarithe

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Pieridae

Coliadinae

Phoebis

sennae

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pierella

hortona

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pierella

hortona

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pierella

hyceta

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pierella

lamia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pierella

lena

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pierella

lena

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Pieridae

Pierinae

Pieriballia

viardi

Huacarpay

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Polites

vibex

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Polyctor

tensa

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Polythrix

octomaculata

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Posttaygetis

penelea

Manu cloudforest 2200m

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Potamanaxas

laoma

Manu cloudforest 1800m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pronophila

cordillera

Manu cloudforest 2000m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pronophila

epidipnis

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pronophila

thelebe

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Proteides

mercurius

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Protesilaus

glaucolaus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Protesilaus

molops

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Protesilaus

telesilaus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Protographium

agesilaus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Papilionidae

Papilioninae

Protographium

thyastes

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Pseudodebis

valentina

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Pseudoscada

timna

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Pteronymia

sao

Manu cloudforest 3200m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Punargentus

lamna

Huacarpay

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Pyrgus

bocchoris

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Pyrgus

oileus

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Pyrgus

oileus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Pyrrhogyra

crameri

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Pyrrhogyra

edocla

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrrhopyginae

Pyrrhopyge

phidias

Manu cloudforest 1700m

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Pythonides

lerina

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Rhetus

arcius

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Rhetus

dysonii

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Rhetus

periander

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Rhetus

periander

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Saliana

morsa

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Saliana

morsa

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Semomesia

croesus

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Semomesia

croesus

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Siproeta

epaphus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Siproeta

stelenes

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Siseme

alectryo

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Sostrata

festiva

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Sostrata

pusilla

Manu cloudforest 2600m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Steremnia

monachella

Manu cloudforest 2800m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Steremnia

umbracina

Manu cloudforest 2800m

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Steroma

bega

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Synargis

orestessa

Puerto Maldonado

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Syrmatia

lamia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrrhopyginae

Tarsoctenus

papias

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Taygetis

angulosa

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Taygetis

echo

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Taygetis

mermeria

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Taygetis

nr leuctra

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Taygetis

sylvia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Taygetis

virgilia

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Satyrinae

Taygetomorpha

puritana

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Telemiades

delalande

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Biblidinae

Temenis

laothoe

Manu cloudforest 1400m

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Theagenes

albiplaga

Manu cloudforest 1800m

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Theritas

danaus

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Lycaenidae

Theclinae

Thestius

selina

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Thyridia

psidii

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Tigridia

acesta

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Tithorea

harmonia

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Nymphalidae

Ithomiinae

Tithorea

harmonia

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Pyrginae

Urbanus

doryssus

Manu cloudforest 1800m

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Vacerra

hermesia

Manu cloudforest 1500m

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Vanessa

altissima

Manu cloudforest 2900m

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Vanessa

altissima

Manu cloudforest 2000m

Nymphalidae

Nymphalinae

Vanessa

braziliensis

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Vehilius

stictomenes

Madre de Dios, Oropendola

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Vettius

lafrenaye

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Hesperiidae

Hesperiinae

Vettius

marcus

Manu, Pantiacolla lodge

Riodinidae

Riodininae

Xenandra

poliotactis

Key Locations visited:

  1. Huacarpay Lakes: Altitude 3000m, near Cusco
  2. Huancarani: Altitude 3780m, on the first part of the Manu Road
  3. Ajanacu (Tres Cruces): Altitude 3370m, at the ecotone of dry grasslands with shrub and cloud forest
  4. Pillahuata: Altitude 2800 – 2200m (Wayqecha, tunnels, alder woodlands on upper Manu road)
  5. Rocotal: Altitude 2060 – 1900m, upper Manu road
  6. Cock-of-the-Rock Lodge: Altitude 1370m (San Pedro)
  7. Manu Paradise Lodge: Altitude 1370m (San Pedro)
  8. Pantiacolla Lodge: Located on the Alto Madre de Dios River; Altitude 470-520m
  9. Oropendola Lodge: Located on the Madre de Dios River, about 400-430m
  10. Puerto Maldonado relict forest: Near town at about 200m